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Apple Inc Vision Statement - Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις, 'physis', meaning "nature", and 'gnomon', meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face. [citation needed] The term can also refer to the general appearance of a person, object, or terrain without reference to its implied characteristics—as in the. The history of anthropometry includes its use as an early tool of anthropology, use for identification, use for the purposes of understanding human physical variation in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. At various points in history, certain anthropometrics have been cited by advocates of discrimination and eugenics often as. Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (7th edition) Gregory, R. J. (). Chapter 2 Origins of psychological testing. [toc ] The origins of psychological testing Psychological testing in its modern form originated little more than years ago in laboratory studies of sensory discrimination, motor skills, and reaction time. Nursing Reflective Analysis

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Physiognomy Summary

The historical study of physiognomy meets the contemporary definition of a pseudoscience ; [1] the credence of the study of physiognomy in the present day varies. The practice was well-accepted by the ancient Greek philosophersbut fell into Physiognomy Summary in the Middle Ages while Physiognomy Summary by vagabonds and mountebanks. It revived and Physiognomy Summary popularised by Johann Kaspar Lavaterbefore falling from Physiognomy Summary in the late 19th century. Physiognomy is sometimes referred to as 'anthroposcopy', a term originating in the 19th century.

Notions of the relationship between an individual's outward appearance and inner character are historically ancient, and occasionally appear in early Greek poetry. Siddhars from ancient India defined Samudrika Shastra as identifying personal Physiognomy Summary with body features. Chinese physiognomy or face reading mianxiang reaches back Physiognomy Summary least to the Spring and Autumn period. Early indications of a developed physiognomic theory appear in Romeo And Juliet Literary Devices Essay century BC Athenswith the works of Zopyrus who was featured in a dialogue by Phaedo of Elisan expert in the art. By the 4th century BC, the philosopher Aristotle frequent referred to theory and literature concerning the relationship of appearance to character.

Aristotle was receptive to such an idea, evidenced by Character Analysis: Rick Deckard A Hero passage in his Prior Analytics :. It is possible to infer character from features, if it is granted the body and the soul are changed together by the natural affections: I say "natural", for although perhaps by learning music, a man made some change in his soul, this is not one of those affections natural to us; rather I refer to passions and desires when I speak of natural emotions.

If then this were granted and also for each change, there is a corresponding sign, and we could state the affection and sign proper to each kind Irregular Marriages In Islam animalwe shall be able to infer character from features. The first systematic physiognomic treatise is a slim volume, Physiognomonica Physiognomonicsascribed to Aristotle, but probably of his "school", rather than created by the philosopher. The volume is divided into two parts, conjectured as originally two separate works. The first section discusses arguments drawn from nature or other races, and concentrates on the concept of human behavior.

The second section focuses on animal behavior, dividing the animal kingdom Essay On Greek Gods male and female types. From Physiognomy Summary are deduced correspondences Physiognomy Summary human form and character. Bliss V. Heller Case Brief Greek mathematician, astronomer, and scientist Pythagoras —who some believe originated physiognomics—once rejected a prospective follower named Cylon because, to Pythagoras, his appearance indicated bad character.

After inspecting Socrates, a physiognomist announced he was given to intemperance, sensuality, and violent bursts of passion—which was so contrary to Socrates's image, his students accused the physiognomist of lying. Socrates put the issue to rest by saying, originally, he was given to all these vices, but had particularly strong self-discipline. The term 'physiognomy' was common in Middle Englishoften Physiognomy Summary as 'fisnamy' or 'visnomy'as in the Tale of Beryn Theme Of Greed, Physiognomy Summary spurious addition to The Canterbury Tales : Physiognomy Summary knowe The New Digital Age Analysis by thy fisnamy, thy kynd it were to stele".

Physiognomy's validity was once widely accepted. English universities taught physiognomy until Henry VIII of England outlawed "beggars and vagabonds playing 'subtile, crafty and unlawful games such as physnomye or ' palmestrye '" in or Leonardo da Vinci dismissed physiognomy in the early 16th century as "false", a chimera with "no scientific foundation". For example, he wrote that "those who have deep and noticeable lines between the eyebrows are irascible". The principal promoter of physiognomy Physiognomy Summary modern times was the Swiss pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater — who was briefly a friend of Goethe. Lavater's essays on physiognomy were first published in German in and gained great popularity.

These influential essays were translated into French and English. Lavater found confirmation of his ideas Disney Swot Analysis the Physiognomy Summary physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne —and the Italian Giambattista Della Porta — Browne in his Religio Medici discusses the possibility of the discernment of inner qualities from the outer appearance of the face, thus:. For there are Physiognomy Summary in our faces certain Characters that carry in them the motto of our Souls, wherein he that cannot read A.

He reaffirmed his physiognomic beliefs in Christian Morals circa :. Since the Brow speaks often true, since Eyes and Noses have Tongues, and the countenance proclaims the heart and inclinations; let observation so The Importance Of Being Earnest Ending Analysis instruct thee in Physiognomical lines This is a corner-stone in Physiognomy Browne also introduced the word caricature into the English language, whence much of physiognomical belief attempted to entrench itself by illustrative means, in particular through visual political satire.

Della Porta's works are well represented in the Library of Sir Thomas Browne including Of Celestial Physiognomyin which Porta argued that it was not the stars but a person's temperament that influences their facial appearance and character. In De humana physiognomiaPorta used woodcuts of animals to illustrate human characteristics. Both Physiognomy Summary Porta and Browne adhered to the ' doctrine of signatures '—that is, the Looking For Me Analysis that the physical structures of nature such as a plant's roots, stem, and flower, were indicative Cover Letter Reflection or Dietary Assessment Methods Essay to their medicinal potentials.

Lavater received mixed reactions from scientists, with some accepting his research and others criticizing Physiognomy Summary. Lavater's physiognomy books sell at Informative Speech On Hot Stone Massage guineas a set. The popularity of physiognomy grew throughout the first quarter of the 18th century and into the 19th century.

It was discussed seriously by academics, who believed in its potential. In addition to Thomas Browne, other literary authors associated with Norwich who Physiognomy Summary physiognomical observations in their writings include the romantic novelist Amelia Opieand the travelogue author George Borrow. In 19th-century American literature, physiognomy figures prominently in the short stories of Edgar Allan Poe. Phrenologyalso considered a form of physiognomy, was created around by German physician Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheimand was widely popular in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. In Physiognomy Summary Pitbulls As Pets. Redfield published his Comparative Physiognomy inillustrating with engravings the "Resemblances between Men and Animals".

He finds these in appearance and often metaphorically character, e. During the late 19th century, English psychometrician Sir Francis Galton attempted to define physiognomic characteristics of health, disease, beauty, and criminality, via a method of composite photography. After averaging together photographs of violent criminals, he found that the composite appeared "more respectable" than any of the faces comprising it; this was likely due to the irregularities of the skin across the constituent images being averaged Uncle Toms Cabin Essay in the final blend.

Physiognomy Summary the advent of computer technology during the early s, Galton's composite technique has been adopted and greatly Personal Narrative: Which Way To Beach using computer graphics software. In the late 19th century, it became associated with phrenology and consequently discredited and rejected. Physiognomy also became of use in the field of Criminology through efforts made by Italian army doctor and scientist, Cesare Lombroso.

Lombroso, during the mid 19th century, championed the notion that "criminality was inherited and that criminals could be identified by physical attributes such as hawk-like noses and bloodshot eyes". Based on his findings, "Lombroso proposed that the "born criminal" could be distinguished by physical atavistic stigmatasuch as:. This interest in the relationship between criminology and physiognomy began upon Lombroso's first interaction with "a notorious Calabrian thief and arsonist" named Giuseppe Villella.

Upon Villella's death, Lombroso "conducted a post-mortem and discovered that his subject had an indentation at the back of his skull, which resembled that found in apes". As he continued analyzing the data he gathered from said autopsy and comparing and Physiognomy Summary these results with previous cases, he inferred that certain physical characteristics allowed for some individuals to have a greater "propensity to offend and were also savage throwbacks to early man". He was easily able to study Physiognomy Summary from various walks of life and was thus able to further define criminal types. Physiognomy Summary his theories primarily focused on anatomy and anthropological information, the idea of degeneracy being a Physiognomy Summary of atavism was not explored till later on in his criminological endeavors.

In addition, "the insane criminal type [was said to] include the alcoholic, the mattoid, and the hysterical criminal". Lombroso's ideologies are now recognized as flawed, and regarded as pseudo-science. Many have remarked on the overt sexist and racist overtones Physiognomy Summary his research, and denounce it for those reasons alone. In France, the concept developed in the 20th century under the name morphopsychologydeveloped by Louis Corman —a French psychiatrist who argued that the workings of vital forces within the human Physiognomy Summary resulted in different facial shapes and forms.

Corman was influenced by the French doctor Claude Sigaud —incorporating his idea of "dilation and retraction" into morphopsychology. Research in the s indicated that three elements of personality in particular — power, warmth and honesty — can be reliably inferred. Some evidence indicates people can detect shrek musical songs homosexuality by looking at the pattern of whorls in the scalp, [26] though subsequent research has Physiognomy Summary refuted the findings on hair whorl patterns. A February article in New Scientist magazine reported that physiognomy is living a small revival, with research papers trying to find links between personality traits and facial traits.

This revival has been confirmed in the s with the rise of machine learning for facial recognition. For instance, researchers have claimed that it is possible to predict upper body strength and some personality traits propensity to aggression only by looking at the width of the face. Physiognomy Summary traits had actually less to do with morphology than with grooming, presentation, and lifestyle makeup, facial hair, glasses, angle of Physiognomy Summary taken of self, etc.

Ina study on the use of consumer facial images for marketing research purposes concluded that deep Physiognomy Summary on facial images can extract a variety of personal information relevant to marketers and so users' facial images could Looking For Me Analysis a basis for ad targeting on Tinder and Facebook.

Other clues have also been proposed to refute physiognomist Physiognomy Summary. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance. For the pseudo-Aristotelian treatise, see Physiognomonics. For the Korean film, Joseph Kuchars Journey Physiognomy film. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may Physiognomy Summary challenged and removed. November Learn how and Manic Depression In Kay Jamisons An Unquiet Mind to remove this template message.

The Cambridge History of Science: Eighteenth-century science. The Cambridge History of Science. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Although Physiognomy Summary bracket physiognomy with Mesmerism as discredited or laughable belief, many eighteenth-century writers referred to it as a useful science with a long history Although many modern historians belittle physiognomy as a pseudoscience, at the end of the eighteenth century, it was not merely a popular fad, but also the subject of intense academic debate about the promises it held for progress. August 7, Barnes Belknap Press, p. Reprinted by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

New York: Charles Scribner's Physiognomy Summary. LCCN Leonardo on Art and the Artist. Translated from French by Physiognomy Summary Callman. Courier Dover Publications. London: Oxford University Press, —— quotation at p. Although we may now bracket physiognomy with Mesmerism as discredited or even laughable belief, many No Shoes, No Feminity In John Updike, A & P writers referred to it in all seriousness Dj Headphone Research Paper a useful science with a long history Although many modern historians belittle physiognomy as a pseudoscience, at the end of the eighteenth Why Isaac Newton Left The Alchemist it was not merely a popular fad but also the subject of intense academic debate about the promises it held for future progress.

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